Formal Name: Somali Democratic Republic.
Short Form: Somalia.
Term for Citizen: Somali (pl., Somalis).
Capital: Capital: Mogadishu.
Independence: 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent
from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became independent from
the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic).
Foundation of the Somali Republic: 1 July (1960); note - 26 June (1960) in Somaliland.
Constitution: 25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979.
Area: 640565 square kilometers with 3,025 kilometers coastline.
Topography: Flat plateau surfaces and plains predominate; principal exception rugged
east-west ranges in far north that include Shimbir Berris, highest point at 2,407
Population: 8.7 million (UN, 2007).
Languages: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English & Indigenous languages include
various dialects of Afar and Boni.
Religion: Islam mainly Sunni Muslim.
Flag: Light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; blue field
influenced by the flag of the UN.
Somali emblem: Two tigers facing each other, holding the Somali flag
Anthem: Soomaaliyeey Toosoo, Toosoo isku tiirsada ee.. Somalia , Wake Up.
Ethnic Groups: Overwhelming majority of nationals ethnic Somalis; and two agricultural
clan-families (Digil and Rahanwayn).
Currency: Currency: Somali shilling (No central bank so various currencies are used,
including the Somaliland shilling).
Climate: Principally desert, northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate
temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid
in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall.
Education and Literacy: United Nations estimate shows 24 percent literacy rate in
Exports: $300 million f.o.b. (2006), main export commodities are-livestock, bananas,
hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal.
Imports: $798 million f.o.b. (2006) mainly import commodities are manufactures,
petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, qat.
Ports and terminals: Berbera, Kismaayo
Time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
There are 18 regions Administrative divisions: Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay,
Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha
Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer and Woqooyi Galbeed.